Uncertain Times for DefenseADCs and DACs Penetrate Sacred Ground
By Barry Manz

The impact of converting analog signals to digital form is one of the greatest advances the electronics industry has ever achieved.

Defense News

Northrop Grumman MMICs Speed AEHF Production
Northrop Grumman has fabricated more than 36,000 MMICs covering frequencies from 300 MHz to 300 GHz for the U.S. Air Force's fifth and sixth Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellites, speeding production of both spacecraft, according to Space Daily.

Article Highlights China Cruise Missile Threat
While the world focuses on China’s ballistic missiles, the country is rapidly developing advanced capabilities for its cruise missiles, according to The National Interest. This is occurring at the same time the U.S. Navy has limited the type and quantity of its own anti-ship cruise missiles, according to the article.

Iran Claims It Reverse-Engineered RQ-170 UAV
Iran says it has copied announced on Sunday that it has copied an RQ-170 Sentinel UAV that it says the country "commandeered" in 2011, after his allegedly being "brought down by the Iranian Armed Forces' electronic warfare unit" in December 2011, according to Iran's Tasnim News Agency. That Iran captured the UAV is not in doubt: U.S. President Barack Obama asked Iran sent to return it after it was captured.

Israeli Navy Gaining Greater Capabilities
The Israel Navy has begun a program to enhance its sea-to-surface missile capabilities, a senior naval source told The Jerusalem Post, who said that the efforts were part of a planned program to increase the role of the navy in integrated warfare capabilities.

House House to Keep A-10, Other Programs
The House Armed Services Committee (HASC) is opted to fund a broad array of projects and has stated its goal of protecting every possible defense system. For example, the committee left the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter largely intact and up the funding for Boeing's EA-18G Growler electronic attack aircraft.

EW Development Key Element of 2015 Budget
The proposed defense budget may be leaned out but electronic warfare will receive considerable funding as the need for it is growing, according to an interesting story in the LA Times.

Insight into Hypersonic Weapons
An article in The Interpreter published by the Lowy Institute for International Policy contains an interview by Harry Kazianis, a non-resident senior fellow at the China Policy Institute (University of Nottingham) with John Stillion, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) into the workings of hypersonic weapons.

Products for Defense
Digitally Programmable Attenuators New 5, 8 and 10 Bit broadband PIN diode digital step attenuators provide performance up to 40 GHz depending on the configuration. These programmable, variable step attenuators are commonly used in EW, military and space communication systems, radar, and test and measurement applications. These digital step attenuators come in 30 and 60 dB values and have attenuation step resolution of 0.25 to 1 dB depending on the model. These programmable RF attenuators offer excellent attenuation accuracy and flatness over a broad frequency range of 0.3 all the way up to 40 GHz. Insertion loss ranges from 4 to 8 dB and P1dB ranges from 10 to 20 dBm depending on the chosen unit. These variable attenuators meet MIL-STD-202F standards for shock, vibration, altitude, humidity and temperature and are constructed using a durable but slimline housing measuring only 0.5” thick. These new attenuators offer fast and reliable switch speeds and high linearity. The lower frequency 0.03 to 18 GHz digital step RF attenuators are equipped with female SMA connectors, while the high frequency units reaching 40 GHz use female 2.4mm connectors. The power control connector for each unit is a 15 PIN Micro-D-Female connector.
Pasternack Enterprises
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High-Performance Cable Assemblies New high-performance, custom semi-rigid coaxial cable assemblies have a VSWR of less than 1.5:1 with frequencies ranging from 5 to 50 GHz. Using next generation software modeling and 3D printing technology, the company can quickly and cost effectively create custom fixtures to meet customers’ specific requirement. These custom cable assemblies are ideal for use in military, aerospace, high-end industrial, oil and gas, as well as medical applications.
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Ultra-Broadband MLDD 4-Way Power Divider Model 7030400 is a new 4-way power divider offering high performance over the ultra-broadband frequency range of 3.0 to 40.0 GHz in a compact package. The company has used its proprietary design technology to produce a wide assortment of matched-line directional dividers (MLDD) with ultra-high performance features. Offering the widest frequency coverage in a single package on the market, this 4-way power divider lends itself to emerging wireless ultra-broadband designs and many test and measurement applications. It can also be manufactured to meet military specifications. The unit covers the frequency range from 3.0 to 40.0 GHz with >13 dB isolation and +/-0.5 dB amplitude tracking. The 4-way divider exhibits insertion loss of <3.0 dB from 3 to 32 GHz and <3.6 dB from 32 to 40 GHz. Maximum input VSWR is 1.9 from 3 to 32 GHz and 2.5 from 32 to 40 GHz. Maximum output VSWR is 1.70 from 3 to 32 GHz and 2.0 from 32 to 40 GHz. Phase tracking is +/-11º from 3 to 32 GHz and +/-15º from 32 to 40 GHz. The power divider is a compact package measuring just 2.64 x 2.30 x 0.40”, weighs only 4.1 ounces, and comes with standard 2.4mm coaxial female connectors. Model 7030400K includes 2.92mm “K” female connectors.
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New SPDT Non-Reflective Switch The CMD196 is a DC to 28 GHz, non-reflective, SPDT switch in die form. It features low insertion loss of 1.75 dB, high isolation of 46 dB, and port return losses better than -15 dB at 14 GHz. A pair of complimentary voltage lines at 0/-5V control the switching action without the need for an external bias supply. Switching speed is typically 1.8 nS. The CMD196, a general purpose, broadband, high-isolation, non-reflective MMIC SPDT switch, is well suited for microwave radio and VSAT, telecom infrastructure, test instrumentation, and military end-use.
Custom MMIC
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Wideband Microwave Amplifier The ZX60-24+ wideband microwave amplifier provides a very wide frequency range from 5 to 20 GHz, covering a wide range of applications from military communications and radar to point-to-point radio and satellite systems. The amplifier is unconditionally stable and provides 24 dB gain with +/-1.3 dB gain flatness across its entire bandwidth, making it suitable for instrumentation, test labs, and other amplitude sensitive systems. It delivers 18 dBm P1dB, 6.9 dB noise figure, and excellent reverse isolation of 62 dB. It operates on a +5VDC, 260mA supply and comes housed in a rugged unibody chassis (0.74 x 0.75 x 0.46”) with SMA-F connectors.
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Agile Signal Generator The N5193A UXG agile signal generator is an off-the-shelf instrument that enables highly realistic and scalable threat simulations for aerospace/defense applications. The UXG is also a dependable slide-in replacement for the legacy fast-switching local oscillators (LOs) often used in large, dedicated simulation systems. To produce realistic multi-threat scenarios, the UXG can switch frequency, amplitude and phase settings in as little as 250 ns, and it provides built-in phase repeatability. This is made possible by direct digital synthesis technology and a company-proprietary digital-to-analog converter. When simulating advanced radar signals, the UXG can generate pulses as narrow as 5 ns with 1 ns rise/fall times and an 80 dB on/off ratio. The UXG can also produce chirps as wide as 10 to 25 percent of the carrier frequency. To mimic antenna scan patterns, the optional attenuator provides 80 dB of agile amplitude changes and 120 dB of overall amplitude range.
Keysight Technologies
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High Power SP3T 100W Reflective Switch The MASW-011030 is a high power PIN diode SP3T switch in a common anode configuration, operating from 30 MHz to 3 GHz. It is designed for military and civilian customers who require higher CW and pulsed power operation for radio applications. This device is capable of handling 100W CW incident power at a base plate temperature of 85ºC, delivered in a single 7mm HWFN 16-lead plastic package. The MASW-011030 is manufactured using the company’s hybrid manufacturing process, featuring high voltage PIN diodes and passive devices, and is a high power switch ideal for use on land mobile radio and MIL-COM applications that require higher power. Covering 30 MHz to 3 GHz, this device delivers 40 dB isolation at 2 GHz with insertion loss of 0.35 dB and is 1B HBM ESD rated.
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Comprehensive Line of IP67 Adapters This new, comprehensive line of IP67 RF adapters is commonly employed in the DAS, cellular, aviation and military industries due to their ingress protection from water and dust. As they are IP67 rated, they use advanced ingress protection to make them virtually impenetrable to contaminants like dust, sand and water. Offered in this release are in-series adapters including 7/16 DIN, 4.1/9.5 mini-DIN, Type-N and TNC. Between-series versions include 7/16 DIN to 4.1/9.5 mini-DIN, 7/16 DIN to Type-N and 4.1/9.5 mini-DIN to Type-N. They are compatible with all like-series connectors, cables and passive and active components. Each adapter operates to 6 GHz with excellent VSWR of 1.15:1 to 1.25:1 depending on the connector type. They come in two different versions, “Mated” and “Unmated.” “Mated” adapters meet the requirements of IP67 only when both ends of the adapter are terminated in mating connectors. “Unmated” adapters meet the requirements of IP67 even when one or both ends of the adapter are unterminated.
Fairview Microwave
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MMD March 2014

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Current Articles

Cut the Defense Budget? Sure, No Worries
The Obama administration and the President himself have always believed that the Department of Defense is like every other government agency: in tough economic times its budget must be cut like everything other agency.

HF SIGINT: A Return from the Dead?
Winston Churchill’s assessment of Ultra in winning World War II was joined by those of then-General Dwight D. Eisenhower who credited it as “decisive” and later by British intelligence official historian Sir Harry Hinsley, who flatly stated that it shortened the length of the war by “not less than two years and probably by four years.

Digital Technology is Removing the RF-to-Digital Divide
While defense systems are far from the first to realize the benefits of digital technology, they nevertheless obtain extraordinary benefits from it. However, one of greatest challenges remains the transformation of analog signals captured over the air into digital data streams--without using large amounts of intervening RF and microwave hardware.

The CDAA Antenna and the Wullenweber
A CDAA (Figure 1) of which the Wullenweber is a type, consists of a group of omnidirectional antennas symmetrically spaced about the periphery of a circular reflector screen. The location of each antenna with respect to the screen and to the adjacent antenna is such that by using a suitable antenna output scanning system, the array provides high unidirectional gain in all directions of azimuth.

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