Uncertain Times for DefenseADCs and DACs Penetrate Sacred Ground
By Barry Manz

The impact of converting analog signals to digital form is one of the greatest advances the electronics industry has ever achieved.

Defense News

Northrop Grumman MMICs Speed AEHF Production
Northrop Grumman has fabricated more than 36,000 MMICs covering frequencies from 300 MHz to 300 GHz for the U.S. Air Force's fifth and sixth Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellites, speeding production of both spacecraft, according to Space Daily.

Article Highlights China Cruise Missile Threat
While the world focuses on China’s ballistic missiles, the country is rapidly developing advanced capabilities for its cruise missiles, according to The National Interest. This is occurring at the same time the U.S. Navy has limited the type and quantity of its own anti-ship cruise missiles, according to the article.

Iran Claims It Reverse-Engineered RQ-170 UAV
Iran says it has copied announced on Sunday that it has copied an RQ-170 Sentinel UAV that it says the country "commandeered" in 2011, after his allegedly being "brought down by the Iranian Armed Forces' electronic warfare unit" in December 2011, according to Iran's Tasnim News Agency. That Iran captured the UAV is not in doubt: U.S. President Barack Obama asked Iran sent to return it after it was captured.

Israeli Navy Gaining Greater Capabilities
The Israel Navy has begun a program to enhance its sea-to-surface missile capabilities, a senior naval source told The Jerusalem Post, who said that the efforts were part of a planned program to increase the role of the navy in integrated warfare capabilities.

House House to Keep A-10, Other Programs
The House Armed Services Committee (HASC) is opted to fund a broad array of projects and has stated its goal of protecting every possible defense system. For example, the committee left the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter largely intact and up the funding for Boeing's EA-18G Growler electronic attack aircraft.

EW Development Key Element of 2015 Budget
The proposed defense budget may be leaned out but electronic warfare will receive considerable funding as the need for it is growing, according to an interesting story in the LA Times.

Insight into Hypersonic Weapons
An article in The Interpreter published by the Lowy Institute for International Policy contains an interview by Harry Kazianis, a non-resident senior fellow at the China Policy Institute (University of Nottingham) with John Stillion, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) into the workings of hypersonic weapons.

September 2013

Burning Down the Silo: An Opinion
By Barry Manz Editor

When it comes to spending taxpayer money, the U.S. Department of Defense is a master. It is also the acknowledged champion in cementing procurement processes in stone and maintaining fiefdoms in its various branches. The latter two attributes are hindrances that must either be changed, at least partially, or the development of key technologies will suffer as a result.

Of the many technological advances whose development DoD hopes to rapidly accelerate, creation of multi-function systems that would integrate radar, electronic warfare, and communications with significant sharing of hardware is somewhere in the top five. Not only would this approach potentially allow systems to be created that could be used on multiple platforms without a complete redesign as is generally the case today, it would give designers throughout the design, development, and testing “food chain” a roadmap to follow that would result in reusable subsystems and software. Finally, it would almost certainly meet stringent SWaP requirements today and in the future.

Blasting Through Bedrock
Based on the simple description in the previous paragraph, the task would certainly be extraordinarily challenging, and purely technological. But however daunting the technical challenge, it is equaled or even exceeded by the human one posed by the rock-solid, seemingly-immovable structure finely honed by DoD to develop and procure electronic systems of every kind. It virtually guarantees that there will be no synergy between services and continuation of the “one-off”, essentially proprietary designs developed by one the prime contractor winning each award. It may be possible to employ the resulting systems on different platforms, but this would be pure serendipity rather than accomplished intentionally.

Of course, this stovepipe or “siloed” approach is hardly limited to DoD: It is widely practiced by other agencies in the U.S. and throughout the world, as well as within massive industrial organizations whose disparate divisions often have no idea what the others are doing either because there is no mandate to do so or because they sometimes compete with each other and have no incentive to cooperate.

Regardless of how firmly rooted this mindset, the end of the fabled DoD stovepipe may of necessity be coming near, or at least be under threat for the reasons noted earlier. However, unpeeling this onion is not a task for the faint of heart or anyone seeking long-term government employment leading to a comfortable retirement. There are multiple reasons for this seemingly insurmountable challenge.

The most obvious is that DoD’s procurement process is work crafted over decades to suit the specific purposes of DoD and its prime contractors. It ensures that there will always be multiple manufacturers with the ability to build radars, EW systems, aircraft, and other complex systems. This in itself is a great idea, as having few U.S. sources (or even one) for these crucial systems would pose a dire threat to national security. The defense industry has already consolidated to a large extent. It also keeps politicians happy, as they can report to their constituents that they are bringing home the bacon, and ensures the employment of hundreds of thousands of people throughout the country. Last but not least, it serves the interests of the Air Force, Army, and Navy, each of which wants its own systems built to its own specifications that they alone possess, and eliminates the annoyance of working with other services. So in this context the process works.

Unfortunately, it also results in a massive bureaucratic morass required to serve every unique program, which is different than any other program and thus consumes lots of money (but employs lots of people). It makes it extremely difficult to rapidly enhance systems in the field with the latest technology as each one has different requirements, eliminating the possibility of across-the-board technology upgrades. In this context, it works poorly, and slowly. DoD recognizes the problem and has no interest in delaying deployment of any system or upgrade, but the way systems are developed precludes this from happening, a fact it has frankly acknowledged many times.

Like most major upheavals, broad-based change will come about only when there is no alternative, and it seems at least possible that this day is near. DoD will unquestionably suffer cuts in spending over the next decade, some unforeseen circumstance notwithstanding. Cuts are already being made in pieces even though the details of widespread cancelations, reductions, or postponements have yet to be disclosed or perhaps even determined. Not only will this impact troop strength, readiness, education, and every other aspect of military affairs, it will impact the realization of four core technological DoD goals: modernization and increased performance, connectivity, multi-functionality, and multi-platform compatibility.

These budget cuts are occurring while the Mideast is burning, terrorism is morphing into a decentralized and potentially more lethal threat while spreading its tentacles into North Africa, Russia is moving further away from the West, access to and control of the South China Sea is hotly-contested, and Iran’s centrifuges are spinning away. If there was ever a time for positive change in procurement leading to more capable, easily upgraded, multi-platform systems that fit within a constricting budget, this is it.


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MMD March 2014

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Current Articles

Cut the Defense Budget? Sure, No Worries
The Obama administration and the President himself have always believed that the Department of Defense is like every other government agency: in tough economic times its budget must be cut like everything other agency.

HF SIGINT: A Return from the Dead?
Winston Churchill’s assessment of Ultra in winning World War II was joined by those of then-General Dwight D. Eisenhower who credited it as “decisive” and later by British intelligence official historian Sir Harry Hinsley, who flatly stated that it shortened the length of the war by “not less than two years and probably by four years.

Digital Technology is Removing the RF-to-Digital Divide
While defense systems are far from the first to realize the benefits of digital technology, they nevertheless obtain extraordinary benefits from it. However, one of greatest challenges remains the transformation of analog signals captured over the air into digital data streams--without using large amounts of intervening RF and microwave hardware.

The CDAA Antenna and the Wullenweber
A CDAA (Figure 1) of which the Wullenweber is a type, consists of a group of omnidirectional antennas symmetrically spaced about the periphery of a circular reflector screen. The location of each antenna with respect to the screen and to the adjacent antenna is such that by using a suitable antenna output scanning system, the array provides high unidirectional gain in all directions of azimuth.

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