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Why Low-power Cellular Will Underpin the IoT

by Peder Rand, Product Manager for Cellular IoT, Nordic Semiconductor First generation (“1G”) cellular communications debuted in the 1970s. Analog systems handled the traffic and the handsets were cumbersome and expensive. But the idea caught on, and by 1990 the number of global subscribers reached 20 million. Fast forward 28 years and according to the […]

Practical LoRa Implementation Considerations

by L-com Global Connectivity Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are an emerging niche in the internet-of-things (IoT) space that is particularly targeted to serve long range, low throughput applications. According to OnWorld, revenues from LPWAN equipment and services are expected to reach $56 billion by 2022. This is no surprise; LPWAN technologies are expected […]

The Design of Multi-Chip SMT Front-End Modules for mm-Wave 5G Applications

by Graham Pearson*, Liam Devlin* and Mike Geen†, *Plextek RFI Ltd and †Filtronic Broadband Ltd The order-of-magnitude increase in data rates, and seemingly infinite capacity, promised by 5G communications systems will be facilitated by the use of mm-Wave frequencies, where large bands of contiguous spectrum are being made available. Although the mm-Wave bands for 5G […]

Power Supply Management of GaN MMIC Power Amplifiers for Pulsed Radar

by David Bennett and Richard DiAngelo, Analog Devices, Inc. Systems that incorporate highly integrated and highly sophisticated, high power radio frequency (RF) GaN power amplifiers (PAs), such as pulsed radar applications, are a constant challenge for today’s digital control and management systems to keep up with these ever-increasing levels of sophistication. To compete in this […]

High-Order Switch Matrices Facilitate Network Infrastructure Testing

by Mini-Circuits Testing cellular network infrastructure often requires measurement and data collection from dozens — even hundreds — of base stations (BTS) within a test environment.  The volume and complexity of signal traffic in these multi-device, multi-user test systems necessitates commensurate capability for routing signals between base stations and test stations. By partnering with customers […]

Gunn Diode Waveguide Oscillators

by Pasternack Microwave oscillators are used in a myriad of applications from mobile phones and GPS navigation systems to radios and test equipment. The purpose of the oscillator is to generate a continuous harmonic output with a defined frequency; this can be accomplished a number of ways. A typical oscillator consists of an active device […]

Pierce-Gate Crystal Oscillator, a Revisit

by Ramon M. Cerda, Crystek Corporation The Pierce-Gate topology shown in Figure 1 is the most ubiquitous circuit for quartz crystal oscillators. It is simple and elegant with its low parts count. However, if not properly designed, it can be detrimental to a product.  Most designers are familiar with the Pierce-Gate topology but few really […]

Receiver IC Blend Mixers, Synthesizers, and IF Amps

by Marc Goldfarb, Ben Walker, Russell Martin, Tom Bosia, Ed Balboni, and Dragoslav Culum, Analog Devices, Inc. Wireless base stations were once contained in large, climate controlled spaces—but now, they could be mounted anywhere. As wireless network service providers attempt to achieve coverage everywhere, the pressure is on base station component suppliers to provide more […]

Ultra-Wideband, Low-Loss Couplers for Cable TV and Broadband Access Systems (DOCSIS® 3.1)

by Mini-Circuits   This application note discusses the use of ultra-low loss, broadband distributed couplers in 75Ω systems such as broadband services over cable television networks (CATV). CATV systems require continuous monitoring of output power in the forward (downstream) path throughout the network to ensure consistent signal transmission. This is often achieved by using a […]