The Opportunities and Challenges of LTE Unlicensed in 5 GHz
David Witkowski, Executive Director, Wireless Communications Initiative
In 1998, the Federal Communications Commission established the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure or U-NII 5 GHz bands. These are used primarily for Wi-Fi networks in homes, offices, hotels, airports, and other public spaces and also consumer devices. U-NII is also used by wireless Internet Service Providers, linking public safety radio sites, and for monitoring and critical infrastructure such as gas/oil pipelines.

MMD March 2014

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Band Reject Filter Series
Higher frequency band reject (notch) filters are designed to operate over the frequency range of .01 to 28 GHz. These filters are characterized by having the reverse properties of band pass filters and are offered in multiple topologies. Available in compact sizes.
RLC Electronics

SP6T RF Switch
JSW6-33DR+ is a medium power reflective SP6T RF switch, with reflective short on output ports in the off condition. Made using Silicon-on-Insulator process, it has very high IP3, a built-in CMOS driver and negative voltage generator.

Group Delay Equalized Bandpass Filter
Part number 2903 is a group delayed equalized elliptic type bandpass filter that has a typical 1 dB bandwidth of 94 MHz and a typical 60 dB bandwidth of 171 MHz. Insertion loss is <2 dB and group delay variation from 110 to 170 MHz is <3nsec.
KR Electronics

Absorptive Low Pass Filter
Model AF9350 is a UHF, low pass filter that covers the 10 to 500 MHz band and has an average power rating of 400W CW. It incurs a rejection of 45 dB minimum at the 750 to 3000 MHz band, and power rating of 25W CW from 501 to 5000 MHz.

LTE Band 14 Ceramic Duplexer
This high performance LTE ceramic duplexer was designed and built for use in public safety communication and commercial cellular applications. It operates in Band 14 and offers low insertion loss and high isolation to enable clear communications in the LTE network.
Networks International

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December 2012

The Changing Face of Test & Measurement
By Richard Hawkins, President, LadyBug Technologies

By Barry Manz, Contributing Editor, MPD

Over the years we have seen dramatic changes in the way power measurements are made. At LadyBug Technologies we have been leading the way in some key development areas. Two factors are driving these changes: more functionality in smaller packages, and benefits arising from commercial computing technology advances.

More Functionality in Smaller Packages
In the past, one had to purchase separate instruments to perform CW and peak power meter measurements. Today, it is possible to get this functionality in a single package. This enables a reduction in overall instrument size, which then reduces the power requirement. While in the past a box instrument would have a dedicated power supply, now all necessary power comes via a standard USB cable.

Not only are things getting physically smaller, we are also enjoying greater capability. At LadyBug, our USB power sensor offers an all-in-one solution: average, pulse, and peak power capabilities. This is possible now as a result of improvements in processor speed. True average and true power measurements can now be produced in a smaller package.

These capabilities enable a dramatic simplification of the whole power measurement process. In the past, power meters had dedicated power sensors with multiple ranges that required both zeroing and calibration. This process required a higher degree of skill before it was possible to take even a basic measurement. Today, with the increase in computing power, we are able to avoid external calibration by using internal memory in the sensor to store all the necessary calibration data. Eliminating the need for zeroing and calibrating the sensor greatly simplifies setup time. The previous requirement for the test technician to know calibration factors and what to do with them has been eliminated.

Benefiting from Commercial Computing Technology Advances
The line between computer and instrument has further blurred with instrumentation having transitioned over to standard computer platforms. Today, test and measurement gets advances in computing technologies automatically. For example, as the industry moves to USB 2 and then USB 3, we gain all the benefits of these new capabilities with minimal investment. Drivers for these industry standards are quickly updated and compatibility across test stations and manufacturing locations becomes less of an issue.

In addition, standard commercial software tools are becoming more capable. For example, Microsoft® Excel is becoming our tool of choice for automating our test processes. It no longer is necessary for test engineers to purchase expensive software programs that are dedicated to test and measurement. Today, we write macros that run inside an MS Excel spreadsheet to simplify the basic tasks of our customers. At LadyBug we recently introduced a self-certification process that customers can download for free from our website. Using our spreadsheet, customers can perform their own power sensor re-certification on-site, without having to send units out to a cal lab or back to our factory. The program steps the test engineer through the process, driving the instruments and generating both the cal report and certificate. We are currently working with several of our customers to extend our MS Excel capability into a number of new application areas.

In short: greater capability in smaller packages, combined with computing technology, is making test and measurement both faster and more cost-effective — and at LadyBug Technologies, we are proud to play a part in those advances.

LadyBug Technologies
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Uncertain Times for DefenseWill OpenRFM Shake Up the Microwave Industry?
By Barry Manz

Throughout the history of the RF and microwave industry there has never been a form factor standardizing the electromechanical, software, control plane, and thermal interfaces used by integrated microwave assemblies (IMAs) employed in defense systems. Rather, every system has been built to meet the requirements of a specific system, which may be but probably isn’t compatible with any other system. It’s simply the way the industry has always responded to requests from subcontractors that in turn must meet the physical, electrical, and RF requirements of prime contractors. Read More...

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