The Opportunities and Challenges of LTE Unlicensed in 5 GHz
David Witkowski, Executive Director, Wireless Communications Initiative
In 1998, the Federal Communications Commission established the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure or U-NII 5 GHz bands. These are used primarily for Wi-Fi networks in homes, offices, hotels, airports, and other public spaces and also consumer devices. U-NII is also used by wireless Internet Service Providers, linking public safety radio sites, and for monitoring and critical infrastructure such as gas/oil pipelines.

MMD March 2014

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Band Reject Filter Series
Higher frequency band reject (notch) filters are designed to operate over the frequency range of .01 to 28 GHz. These filters are characterized by having the reverse properties of band pass filters and are offered in multiple topologies. Available in compact sizes.
RLC Electronics

SP6T RF Switch
JSW6-33DR+ is a medium power reflective SP6T RF switch, with reflective short on output ports in the off condition. Made using Silicon-on-Insulator process, it has very high IP3, a built-in CMOS driver and negative voltage generator.

Group Delay Equalized Bandpass Filter
Part number 2903 is a group delayed equalized elliptic type bandpass filter that has a typical 1 dB bandwidth of 94 MHz and a typical 60 dB bandwidth of 171 MHz. Insertion loss is <2 dB and group delay variation from 110 to 170 MHz is <3nsec.
KR Electronics

Absorptive Low Pass Filter
Model AF9350 is a UHF, low pass filter that covers the 10 to 500 MHz band and has an average power rating of 400W CW. It incurs a rejection of 45 dB minimum at the 750 to 3000 MHz band, and power rating of 25W CW from 501 to 5000 MHz.

LTE Band 14 Ceramic Duplexer
This high performance LTE ceramic duplexer was designed and built for use in public safety communication and commercial cellular applications. It operates in Band 14 and offers low insertion loss and high isolation to enable clear communications in the LTE network.
Networks International

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February 2013

Understanding JESD204 and JESD204B: A Primer
By Jonathan Harris, Analog Devices

As the resolution and speed of converters has increased, the demand for a more efficient interface has grown. A new converter interface, the JESD204, was originally rolled out several years ago, but has undergone revisions that are making it a much more attractive and efficient converter interface. Today, it is steadily picking up steam and looks to become the protocol of choice for future converters. The JESD204 interface brings this efficiency and offers several advantages over its CMOS and LVDS predecessors in terms of speed, size, and cost. Designs employing JESD204 enjoy the benefits of a faster interface to keep pace with the faster sampling rates of converters. In addition, there is a reduction in pin count which leads to smaller package sizes and a lower number of trace routes that make board designs much easier and offers lower overall system cost. The standard is also easily scalable so it can be adapted to meet future needs. This has already been exhibited by the two revisions that the standard has undergone. The JESD204 standard has seen two revisions since its introduction in 2006 and is now at revision B. As the standard has been adopted by an increasing number of converter vendors and users as well as FPGA manufacturers, it has been refined and new features have been added that have increased efficiency and ease of implementation. The standard applies to both analog to digital converters (ADCs) as well as digital to analog converters (DACs) and is primarily intended as a common interface to FPGAs (but may also be used with ASICs).

Figure 1: JESD204 Original Standard

JESD204 – What is it?
In April of 2006, the original version of JESD204 was released. The standard describes a multi-gigabit serial data link between converter(s) and a receiver, commonly a device such as an FPGA or ASIC. In this original version of JESD204, the serial data link was defined for a single serial lane between a converter or multiple converters and a receiver. A graphical representation is provided in Figure 1. The lane shown is the physical interface between M number of converters and the receiver, which consists of a differential pair of interconnects utilizing current mode logic (CML) drivers and receivers. The link shown is the serialized data link that is established between the converter(s) and the receiver. The frame clock is routed to both the converter(s) and the receiver and provides the clock for the JESD204 link between the devices.

The lane data rate is defined between 312.5 Megabits per second (Mbps) and 3.125 Gigabits per second (Gbps) with both source and load impedance defined as 100 Ω ±20%. The differential voltage level is defined as being nominally 800 mV peak-to-peak with a common mode voltage level range from 0.72 V to 1.23 V. The link utilizes 8b/10b encoding which incorporates an embedded clock, removing the necessity for routing an additional clock line and the associated complexity of aligning an additional clock signal with the transmitted data at high data rates. It became obvious as the JESD204 standard began being used that the standard needed to be revised to incorporate support for multiple aligned serial lanes with multiple converters to accommodate increasing speeds and resolutions of converters.

This realization led to the first revision of the JESD204 standard in April of 2008 which became known as JESD204A. This revision of the standard added the ability to support multiple aligned serial lanes with multiple converters. The lane data rates, supporting from 312.5 Mbps up to 3.125 Gbps, remained unchanged as did the frame clock and the electrical interface specifications. Increasing the capabilities of the standard to support multiple aligned serial lanes made it possible for converters with high sample rates and high resolutions to meet the maximum supported data rate of 3.125 Gbps. Figure 2 shows a graphical representation of the additional capabilities added in the JESD204A revision to support multiple lanes.

Figure 2: First Revision – JESD204A

Although both the original JESD204 standard and the revised JESD204A standard were higher performance than legacy interfaces, they were still lacking a key element. This missing element was deterministic latency in the serialized data on the link. When dealing with a converter, it is important to know the timing relationship between the sampled signal and its digital representation in order to properly recreate the sampled signal in the analog domain once the signal has been received (this situation is, of course for an ADC; a similar situation is true for a DAC). This timing relationship is affected by the latency of the converter, which is defined for an ADC as the number of clock cycles between the instant of the sampling edge of the input signal until the time that its digital representation is present at the converter’s outputs. Similarly, in a DAC, the latency is defined as the number of clock cycles between the time the digital signal is clocked into the DAC until the analog output begins changing. In the JESD204 and JESD204A standards there were no defined capabilities that would deterministically set the latency of the converter and its serialized digital inputs/outputs. In addition, converters were continuing to increase in both speed and resolution. These factors led to the introduction of the second revision of the standard, JESD204B.

In July of 2011, the second and current revision of the standard, JESD204B, was released. One of the key components of the revised standard was the addition of provisions to achieve deterministic latency. In addition, the data rates supported were pushed up to 12.5 Gbps broken down into different speed grades of devices. This revision of the standard calls for the transition from using the frame clock as the main clock source to using the device clock as the main clock source. Figure 3 gives a representation of the additional capabilities added by the JESD204B revision.

Figure 3: Second (Current) Revision – JESD204B

In the previous two versions of the JESD204 standard, there were no provisions defined to ensure deterministic latency through the interface. The JESD204B revision remedies this issue by providing a mechanism to ensure that, from power-up cycle to power-up cycle and across link re-synchronization events, the latency should be repeatable and deterministic. One way this is accomplished is by initiating the initial lane alignment sequence in the converter(s) simultaneously across all lanes at a well-defined moment in time by using an input signal called SYNC˜. Another implementation is to use the SYSREF signal which is a newly defined signal for JESD204B. The SYSREF signal acts as the master timing reference and aligns all the internal dividers from device clocks as well as the local multi-frame clocks in each transmitter and receiver. This helps to ensure deterministic latency through the system. The JESD204B specification calls out three device sub-classes: Sub-class 0 – No support for deterministic latency, Sub-class 1 – Deterministic latency using SYSREF, and Sub-class 2 – Deterministic latency using SYNC˜. Sub-class 0 can simply be compared to a JESD204A link. Sub-class 1 is primarily intended for converters operating at or above 500MSPS, while Sub-class 2 is primarily for converters operating below 500MSPS.

In addition to the deterministic latency, the JESD204B version increases the supported lane data rates to 12.5 Gbps and divides devices into three different speed grades. The source and load impedance is the same for all three speed grades, being defined as 100 Ω ±20%. The first speed grade aligns with the lane data rates from the JESD204 and JESD204A versions of the standard and defines the electrical interface for lane data rates up to 3.125 Gbps. The second speed grade in JESD204B defines the electrical interface for lane data rates up to 6.375 Gbps. This speed grade lowers the minimum differential voltage level to 400 mV peak-to-peak, down from 500 mV peak-to-peak for the first speed grade. The third speed grade in JESD204B defines the electrical interface for lane data rates up to 12.5 Gbps. This speed grade lowers the minimum differential voltage level required for the electrical interface to 360 mV peak-to-peak. As the lane data rates increase for the speed grades, the minimum required differential voltage level is reduced to make physical implementation easier by reducing required slew rates in the drivers.

To allow for more flexibility, the JESD204B revision transitions from the frame clock to the device clock. Previously, in the JESD204 and JESD204A revisions, the frame clock was the absolute timing reference in the JESD204 system. Typically, the frame clock and the sampling clock of the converter(s) were usually the same. This did not offer a lot of flexibility and could cause undesired complexity in system design when attempting to route this same signal to multiple devices and account for any skew between the different routing paths. In JESD204B, the device clock is the timing reference for each element in the JESD204 system. Each converter and receiver receives their respective device clock from a clock generator circuit which is responsible for generating all device clocks from a common source. This allows for more flexibility in the system design, but requires that the relationship between the frame clock and device clock be specified for a given device.

JESD204 – Why Should We Pay Attention to It?
In much the same way as LVDS began overtaking CMOS as the technology of choice for the converter digital interface several years ago, JESD204 is poised to tread a similar path in the next few years. While CMOS technology is still hanging around today, it has mostly been overtaken by LVDS. The speed and resolution of converters as well as the desire for lower power eventually renders CMOS and LVDS inadequate for converters. As the data rate increases on the CMOS outputs, the transient currents also increase and result in higher power consumption. While the current, and thus power consumption, remains relatively flat for LVDS, the interface has an upper speed bound that it can support. This is due to the driver architecture as well as the numerous data lines that must all be synchronized to a data clock. Figure 4 illustrates the different power consumption requirements of CMOS, LVDS, and CML outputs for a dual 14-bit ADC.

Figure 4: CMOS, LVDS, and CML Driver Power Comparison

At approximately 150 – 200 MSPS and 14 bits of resolution, CML output drivers start to become more efficient in terms of power consumption. CML offers the advantage of requiring less numbers of output pairs per a given resolution than LVDS and CMOS drivers due to the serialization of the data. The CML drivers specified for the JESD204B interface have an additional advantage since the specification calls for reduced peak-to-peak voltage levels as the sample rate increases and pushes up the output line rate. The number of pins required for the same given converter resolution and sample rate is also considerably less. Table 1 gives an illustration of the pin counts for the three different interfaces using a 200 MSPS converter with various channel counts and bit resolutions. The data assumes a synchronization clock for each channel’s data in the case of the CMOS and LVDS outputs and a maximum data rate of 4.0 Gbps for JESD204B data transfer using the CML outputs. The reasons for the progression to JESD204B using CML drivers become obvious when looking at this table and observing the dramatic reduction in pin count that can be achieved.

Table 1: Pin Count Comparison – 200 MSPS ADC

Analog Devices, market leader in data converters, has seen the trend that is pushing the converter digital interface towards the JESD204 interface defined by JEDEC. Analog Devices has been involved with the standard from the beginning when the first JESD204 specification was released. To date, Analog Devices has released to production several converters with the JESD204, JESD204A, and JESD204B compatible. The AD9639 is a quad-channel 12-bit 170/210 MSPS ADC that with a JESD204 interface. The AD9644 and AD9641 are 14-bit 80/155 MSPS dual and single ADCs that have the JESD204A interface. ADI’s latest ADC release with the JESD204 serial interface is the AD9250, a dual-channel 14-bit 250MSPS ADC with JESD204B. From the DAC perspective, the recently released AD9128 is a dual 16-bit 1.25 GSPS DAC that has a JESD204A interface. For more information on Analog Devices efforts in regards to JESD204, please visit

As the speed and resolution of converters have increased, the demand for a more efficient digital interface has increased. The industry began realizing this with the JESD204 serialized data interface. The interface specification has continued to evolve to offer a better and faster way to transmit data between converters and FPGAs (or ASICs). The interface has undergone two revisions to improve upon its implementation and meet the increasing demands brought on by higher speeds and higher resolution converters. Looking to the future of converter digital interfaces, it is clear that JESD204 is poised to become the industry choice for the digital interface to converters. Each revision has answered the demands for improvements on its implementation and has allowed the standard to evolve to meet new requirements brought on by changes in converter technology. As system designs become more complex and converter performance pushes higher, the JESD204 standard should be able to adapt and evolve to continue to meet the new design requirements necessary.

JEDEC Standard JESD204 (April 2006). JEDEC Solid State Technology Association.
JEDEC Standard JESD204A (April 2008). JEDEC Solid State Technology Association.
JEDEC Standard JESD204B (July 2011). JEDEC Solid State Technology Association.

About the Author
Jonathan Harris is a product applications engineer, High-Speed Converter Group, Analog Devices, Inc. (Greensboro, NC). He has over 7 years of experience as an applications engineer supporting products in the RF industry. Jonathan received his MSEE from Auburn University and his BSEE from UNC-Charlotte. He can be reached via email at

Analog Devices, Inc.
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