The Opportunities and Challenges of LTE Unlicensed in 5 GHz
David Witkowski, Executive Director, Wireless Communications Initiative
In 1998, the Federal Communications Commission established the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure or U-NII 5 GHz bands. These are used primarily for Wi-Fi networks in homes, offices, hotels, airports, and other public spaces and also consumer devices. U-NII is also used by wireless Internet Service Providers, linking public safety radio sites, and for monitoring and critical infrastructure such as gas/oil pipelines.

MMD March 2014

Previous issues click here


Band Reject Filter Series
Higher frequency band reject (notch) filters are designed to operate over the frequency range of .01 to 28 GHz. These filters are characterized by having the reverse properties of band pass filters and are offered in multiple topologies. Available in compact sizes.
RLC Electronics

SP6T RF Switch
JSW6-33DR+ is a medium power reflective SP6T RF switch, with reflective short on output ports in the off condition. Made using Silicon-on-Insulator process, it has very high IP3, a built-in CMOS driver and negative voltage generator.

Group Delay Equalized Bandpass Filter
Part number 2903 is a group delayed equalized elliptic type bandpass filter that has a typical 1 dB bandwidth of 94 MHz and a typical 60 dB bandwidth of 171 MHz. Insertion loss is <2 dB and group delay variation from 110 to 170 MHz is <3nsec.
KR Electronics

Absorptive Low Pass Filter
Model AF9350 is a UHF, low pass filter that covers the 10 to 500 MHz band and has an average power rating of 400W CW. It incurs a rejection of 45 dB minimum at the 750 to 3000 MHz band, and power rating of 25W CW from 501 to 5000 MHz.

LTE Band 14 Ceramic Duplexer
This high performance LTE ceramic duplexer was designed and built for use in public safety communication and commercial cellular applications. It operates in Band 14 and offers low insertion loss and high isolation to enable clear communications in the LTE network.
Networks International

See all products in this issue

June 2013

ARs 6 – 18 GHz Solid State Amplifiers Provide High Gain, Low Noise, Good Linearity, and Excellent Mismatch Capability for EMC and Non-EMC Testing
By AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation

If you’re conducting EMC or non-EMC testing in the 6 – 18 GHz frequency range, there are now excellent alternatives to both Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers (TWTAs) and to solid state GaAs MMIC technology amplifiers.

With its first solid state amplifiers that reach 18 GHz, AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation now offers two solid state microwave amplifiers that cover the 6 – 18 GHz frequency range. Model 5S6G18 (5 Watts) and model 20S6G18 (20 Watts) provide high gain, low noise, good linearity, and excellent mismatch capability. These units also deliver superior EVM (Error Vector Magnitude) performance. Both units operate from AC and provide instant power with no warm-up time needed.

Figure 1: Model 5S6G18 Block Diagram

Product Design
The 5S6G18 and 20S6G18 solid state amplifiers’ block diagrams are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Both designs utilize numerous GaAs FETs and MMICs in a balanced configuration. All devices are biased Class A using an active bias circuit. The output stages are combined using AR proprietary technology.

Model 5S6G18 features a minimum of 5 Watts output power, a minimum 37dB of gain and typical noise figure of 6dB (a significant improvement over TWTAs). Gain flatness is within +/- 2.0dB across the band. All 2nd harmonics are better than -20dBc and third-order intercept is typically +46dBm. The broadband amplifier is protected with an overdrive circuit at the input.
Model 20S6G18 features a minimum of 20 Watts output power, a minimum 43dB of gain and typical noise figure of 6dB (a significant improvement over TWTAs). Gain flatness is within +/- 2.0dB across the band. All 2nd harmonics are better than -20dBc and third-order intercept is typically +48dBm. The broadband amplifier is protected with an overdrive circuit at the input.

Figure 2: Model 20S6G18 Block Diagram

Advantages Over Solid State Amplifiers Using GaAs MMIC Technology
The 5S6G18 and 20S6G18 solid state amplifiers from AR are based on a hybrid thin film and GaAs chip technology that represents a significant improvement over solid state amplifiers that use GaAs MMIC technology. The AR amplifiers deliver superior performance for power output, IP3, harmonics and gain flatness, and mismatch capabilities.

Figure 5 shows the superior intermodulation performance of AR’s FET Chip technology as compared to MMIC technology.

Figure 3: Model 20S6G18 Gain and Return Loss Characteristics

Another advantage over MMIC technology is that AR’s FET Chip technology enables the amplifier to be built to specific needs, whereas MMIC technology results in a
more uniform, “cookie-cutter” amplifier.

Compared to TWTAs
These solid state amplifiers also offer significant advantages over TWTAs in similar applications. For example, as the tube of a traveling wave tube amplifier ages, the output power decreases and readjustment is required. Eventually the tube will need to be replaced. But solid state microwave amplifiers do not require adjustment, and they outlast TWTAs. The average mean time between failures for a solid state microwave amplifier is greater than 20 years. For a TWT, it’s an average of 8 years. In addition, the solid state microwave amplifiers provide a much cleaner, more stable and better intermodulation performance. Our solid state units are 100% load tolerant without power foldback and the TWT must be protected from mismatches when greater than 2:1 VSWR is present.

Figure 4: Typical Output Power 40S6G18

Additional Features
Model 5S6G18 and 20S6G18 are protected from RF overdrive by an RF input leveling circuit that controls the input level applied to the first stage of amplification when the RF input is increased above 0 dBm. The individual RF amplifier stages are protected from over temperature by removing the DC voltage applied to them if an over temperature condition occurs due to a cooling blockage or fan failure. There is a digital display on the front panel to indicate the operational status and fault conditions when an over-temperature or power supply fault has occurred. The unit can be returned to normal operation when the condition has
been cleared.

Figure 5: Intermodulation Performance of AR’s FET Chip technology compared to MMIC technology.

Both units feature a digital control for both local and remote control of the amplifier. This eight-bit RISC microprocessor-controlled board provides both IEEE-488 (GPIB) and asynchronous full duplex RS-232 control of all functions. Also included are USB 2.0 and Ethernet interfaces.

Expandable Power
In keeping with AR’s commitment to providing equipment that can grow along with the user’s needs, the 5S6G18 (5 Watts) can be expanded to 10, 20 or even 40 watts. In fact, AR makes the only 40-Watt amplifier in this frequency range.

According to Donald “Shep” Shepherd, AR chairman, “The 6 – 18 GHz solid state amplifiers are innovations that reflect AR’s leadership in the industry and its ability to combine the resources of all AR companies to continually introduce breakthrough solutions.”

AR RF/Microwave Instrumentation
Email this article to a friend!


You Can
Search by Number:

  All ads, articles, and products in printed issues of MPD have a number. Just look for the red arrow in the ad or at the end of the article or product description.


Uncertain Times for DefenseOpen’s Systems and Changes in DoD Procurement: This Time It’s Real
By Barry Manz

The U.S. Department of Defense has a well-earned reputation for inertia. Many proposals for change are made – but nothing happens. The COTS initiative, which promised cost savings through the use of off-the-shelf commercial parts, sounded terrific at the time. It heralded a major departure from standard DoD procurement that more or less guaranteed that every system would be different in part because it used parts that were developed from scratch, leading to “one-off” systems that were very expensive. Read More...

Home | About Us | Archives | Editorial Submissions | Media Kit (PDF) | Events | Subscribe/Renew | Contact Us
Copyright © 2014 Octagon Communication Inc. DBA MPDigest /, All Rights Reserved.
Privacy Policy | Site Map