The Opportunities and Challenges of LTE Unlicensed in 5 GHz
David Witkowski, Executive Director, Wireless Communications Initiative
In 1998, the Federal Communications Commission established the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure or U-NII 5 GHz bands. These are used primarily for Wi-Fi networks in homes, offices, hotels, airports, and other public spaces and also consumer devices. U-NII is also used by wireless Internet Service Providers, linking public safety radio sites, and for monitoring and critical infrastructure such as gas/oil pipelines.

MMD March 2014

Previous issues click here


Band Reject Filter Series
Higher frequency band reject (notch) filters are designed to operate over the frequency range of .01 to 28 GHz. These filters are characterized by having the reverse properties of band pass filters and are offered in multiple topologies. Available in compact sizes.
RLC Electronics

SP6T RF Switch
JSW6-33DR+ is a medium power reflective SP6T RF switch, with reflective short on output ports in the off condition. Made using Silicon-on-Insulator process, it has very high IP3, a built-in CMOS driver and negative voltage generator.

Group Delay Equalized Bandpass Filter
Part number 2903 is a group delayed equalized elliptic type bandpass filter that has a typical 1 dB bandwidth of 94 MHz and a typical 60 dB bandwidth of 171 MHz. Insertion loss is <2 dB and group delay variation from 110 to 170 MHz is <3nsec.
KR Electronics

Absorptive Low Pass Filter
Model AF9350 is a UHF, low pass filter that covers the 10 to 500 MHz band and has an average power rating of 400W CW. It incurs a rejection of 45 dB minimum at the 750 to 3000 MHz band, and power rating of 25W CW from 501 to 5000 MHz.

LTE Band 14 Ceramic Duplexer
This high performance LTE ceramic duplexer was designed and built for use in public safety communication and commercial cellular applications. It operates in Band 14 and offers low insertion loss and high isolation to enable clear communications in the LTE network.
Networks International

See all products in this issue

April 2014

Ultra-Low Jitter Clocks for High-Performance Digital-to-Analog Converters
By Ramon Cerda, VP of Engineering, Crystek Corporation

Most, if not all, music today is now recorded digitally. Initially, an Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) was used to record and store the music in a myriad of different electronic media. These can include compact disks (CD), computer hard drives, cell phones and USB sticks, to name a few. For us to hear the music, it has to be converted back to the analog domain. This is accomplished with a Digital-to-Analog converter (DAC). This paper will exemplify how the DAC output quality is directly affected by the jitter/phase noise performance of the clock feeding the DAC.

Figure 1: High level block diagram of a typical digital audio unit application

Figure 1 is high level diagram of a typical Digital Audio Unit (DAU) application set-up. Such units are available from under $100 to over $15,000 for the high-end audiophile market. The original digital audio source may have been sampled at different rates. The typical CD digital data is sampled at 44.1 KHz (16-bits) while high-end recordings are sampled at 192 KHz (24-bits) and higher rates using high-resolution ADCs. Some DAUs even have the capability to up-sample the incoming 44.1 KHz rate to a higher rate for enhanced audio fidelity.

An ideal and a clock signal with jitter are depicted in Figure 2. Jitter causes each period of the clock to vary randomly (period jitter) with a certain probability distribution function. The Gaussian probability distribution is typically what is seen. It is also called random jitter. Deterministic jitter is created, for example, by the switching frequency from the power supply modulating the clock source. In this case, the reconstructed signal will have sidebands at the switching frequency and its multiples. These sidebands are not harmonically related to the desired signal, making them particularly unpleasant to listen to.

Figure 2: Ideal and jittered clock signals

Jitter on the DAC clock raises the noise floor and distorts the reconstructed signal. An exaggerated drawing of distortion on a reconstructed signal is shown in Figure 3.

A DAC resolution, N, is 2N × LSB (least significant bit) which determines the maximum analog output. Therefore, a DAC with N=16 bits is capable of reconstructing a signal using 65,536 steps. However, the effective number of bits (ENOB) in a DAC is a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but in turn SNR is a function of the clock jitter. That is,

Where Δt is the RMS jitter in seconds, ƒ is the signal frequency, ƒ0 is the bandwidth of noise measurement in Hertz, and ƒs is the sampling frequency. Now, ENOB is given by

The above equation assumes that the DAC has no distortion and the SNR equation is the theoretical limit. Hence, jitter on the sampling clock directly impacts the SNR and ENOB on the DAC. The plot below (Figure 4) was plotted using the condition that: The signal frequency ƒ = 5 KHz, the sampling frequency ƒs = 100 KHz, the noise bandwidth ƒ0 = 20 KHz as a function of jitter being swept from 1 nS to 10 nS RMS.

Solving for SNR in the preceeding equation we have,

Hence, a 14-bit system would require a theoretical SNR of 86.04 dB.

The above discussion now leads us to define/describe what makes a good clock source for high-performance DAC applications. Many digital audio equipment manufacturers use clock sources at 22.5792 MHz and/or 24.576 MHz inside the equipment. They also use double these two frequencies, that is, 45.1584 MHz and 49.152 MHz. And in this application, phase noise is critical. Jitter in a clock will directly distort the signal, enough that the listener will actually hear the difference in audio output.

Figure 3: Reconstructed with jitter-free and jittered clocks

To achieve the required and expected audio fidelity standards, DAC manufacturers need to source a high-performance oscillator that is built around a well-designed, very high-quality crystal to keep phase noise low. Any old oscillator with just another crystal blank won’t fit the bill. Traditionally, this has translated into very expensive oscillator products.

Figure 4: SNR and Jitter

But, this being the consumer electronics market, manufacturers are under pressure to compete on price with each other, even manufacturers of the “high-end” audiophile equipment. Every component inside their equipment is scrutinized for optimum performance but at low cost. Through this, DAC manufacturers still need an oscillator that will give them the performance they need.

Figure 5: Phase Noise Plot for Crystek CCHD-957 Oscillator

Crystal oscillator manufacturers have met the challenge of designing and producing clock oscillators with phase noise and jitter performance as good as those from a part costing hundreds of dollars, while achieving $30 single-piece pricing. Crystek’s model CCHD-957 family, for example, was specifically designed for the digital audio market. The phase noise for the 24.576 MHz variant is shown below (Figure 5). It is a superb performance being generated from a tiny 9 x 14 mm package.

Walter Kester, “Converting Oscillator Phase Noise to Time Jitter”, Analog Devices MT-008 tutorial.
Robert Watson, Richard Kulavik, “Digital Audio”, Presentation slides, Burr-Brown.
Maxim Integrated, “Digital-to-Analog Converters Are a “Bit” Analog”, Tutorial 1055.
Decapton Wang, “Effects of Clock Noise on High-Speed DAC Performance”, Application Report SLAA566, December 2012.

Crystek Corporation
Email this article to a friend!


You Can
Search by Number:

  All ads, articles, and products in printed issues of MPD have a number. Just look for the red arrow in the ad or at the end of the article or product description.


Uncertain Times for DefenseWill OpenRFM Shake Up the Microwave Industry?
By Barry Manz

Throughout the history of the RF and microwave industry there has never been a form factor standardizing the electromechanical, software, control plane, and thermal interfaces used by integrated microwave assemblies (IMAs) employed in defense systems. Rather, every system has been built to meet the requirements of a specific system, which may be but probably isn’t compatible with any other system. It’s simply the way the industry has always responded to requests from subcontractors that in turn must meet the physical, electrical, and RF requirements of prime contractors. Read More...

Home | About Us | Archives | Editorial Submissions | Media Kit (PDF) | Events | Subscribe/Renew | Contact Us
Copyright © 2014 Octagon Communication Inc. DBA MPDigest /, All Rights Reserved.
Privacy Policy | Site Map